National Population Policy: India with a population crossing a hundred crore is the second most populated country. The government of the country has always shown concern about the country’s population growth. In 1946, just a few months prior to the accomplishment of independence, the Bhore Committee presented its report. That report became the foundation for improving a National Population Policy (NPP).
The Goals Of National Population Policy:
- Radha Kamal Mukherjee Committee, 1940: The population of India accelerated quickly after 1921. Indian National Congress appointed a committee in 1940 under Radha Kamal Mukherjee, a well known social scientist. The committee was formed to discuss ideas to grab a hold on the country’s increase in population.
- Bhore Committee, 1943: In 1943, under the chairmanship of Sir Joseph Bhore a Health Survey and Development Committee was appointed by the Government of India. The committee recommended an approach to the voluntary control of the family in order to maintain population stabilization.
How the policy took its form?
In 1952 the Family Planning Programme was released which coincided with the release of the national Community Development Programme.
The government declared its very first statement about the NPP after reviewing the Family Planning Programme and the demographic trends rigorously. This was followed by a statement of policy on the Family Welfare Programme in 1977.
The National Health Policy was adopted by the government in 1983. The policy mainly highlighted the need to secure the norm of the small family via voluntary efforts keeping the purpose of a stable population in mind. At the same time, the Parliament emphasized that the country requires an individual National Population Policy (NPP) and thus in 1991 the National Development Council formed a committee for the population policy. In 1993 the committee submitted a report that recommended the development of the National Population Policy. The policy was suggested to form because of these three main reasons:
- Emphasis on environment protection, development, and population growth.
- Suggesting guidelines and policies for the development of the program.
- Focusing on a monitoring mechanism with a short, medium, and long term view.
Soon and a group of experts which was lead by M.S. Swaminathan was elected in order to prepare the National Population Policy draft. Finally, in 2000 the NPP come into action.
National Population Policy 1976 and 1977
The government came up with the first NPP in 1976. The first policy was about several measures to attain a stable population.
Some of the measures were:
- To increase the legal age of girls and boys to eighteen and twenty-one respectively, for marriage.
- Monetary considerations for birth-control.
- Developing the education levels of the female population through both non-formal and formal ways.
- The population of the country was made as a model for administering central resources with the resources of the states. Combining 8% of the assistance by the central to the State Plans by measuring the administration of the states in the welfare programs.
- Spread news about the Family Welfare Programmes by utilizing all modes of media.
- Including population education in the regular education system.
Other promotional and motivational measures of the policy were:
- Strict implementation of Child Marriage Act, 1976
- Equipment for secure abortion to be developed and established.
- Strict implementation of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994.
- Encouragement of heightened vocational training projects for girls commencing to self-employment.
- The Balika Samridhi Yojna operated by the Department of Women and Child Development to improve survival and to take care of the female children.
- Child care centers to be built for income-generating activities by self-help groups in the village who give community-level healthcare services.
- A more large-scale and affordable supply of contraceptives to be made available at several delivery points with counseling assistance to allow acceptors to practice willingly and knowledgeable consent.
The objectives of NPP 2000
The paramount objective of the policy was to discuss the urgency of healthcare support, contraception, health personnel and to make interracial service delivery available for reproductive care along with child healthcare.
However, the medium-term objective of the policy was to imply intersectoral operational procedures to change the TFR or Total Fertility Rate into the replacement levels by 2010.
And lastly, the long term objective is population stabilization by the year 2045 and attain widespread immunization of infants against all vaccine-preventable illnesses.